HEDC++: An Extended Histogram Estimator for Data in the Cloud. With increasing popularity of cloud-based data management, improving the performance of queries in the cloud is an urgent issue to solve. Summary of data distribution and statistical information has been commonly used in traditional databases to support query optimization, and histograms are of particular interest. Naturally, histograms could be used to support query optimization and efficient utilization of computing resources in the cloud. Histograms could provide helpful reference information for generating optimal query plans, and generate basic statistics useful for guaranteeing the load balance of query processing in the cloud. Since it is too expensive to construct an exact histogram on massive data, building an approximate histogram is a more feasible solution. This problem, however, is challenging to solve in the cloud environment because of the special data organization and processing mode in the cloud. In this paper, we present HEDC++, an extended histogram estimator for data in the cloud, which provides efficient approximation approaches for both equi-width and equi-depth histograms. We design the histogram estimate workflow based on an extended MapReduce framework, and propose novel sampling mechanisms to leverage the sampling efficiency and estimate accuracy. We experimentally validate our techniques on Hadoop and the results demonstrate that HEDC++ can provide promising histogram estimate for massive data in the cloud.

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  1. Shi, Ying-Jie; Meng, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Fusheng; Gan, Yan-Tao: HEDC++: an extended histogram estimator for data in the cloud (2013)