PUFKY: A fully functional PUF-based cryptographic key generator. We present PUFKY: a practical and modular design for a cryptographic key generator based on a Physically Unclonable Function (PUF). A fully functional reference implementation is developed and successfully evaluated on a substantial set of FPGA devices. It uses a highly optimized ring oscillator PUF (ROPUF) design, producing responses with up to 99% entropy. A very high key reliability is guaranteed by a syndrome construction secure sketch using an efficient and extremely low-overhead BCH decoder. This first complete implementation of a PUF-based key generator, including a PUF, a BCH decoder and a cryptographic entropy accumulator, utilizes merely 17% (1162slices) of the available resources on a low-end FPGA, of which 82% are occupied by the ROPUF and only 18% by the key generation logic. PUFKY is able to produce a cryptographically secure 128-bit key with a failure rate < 10− 9 in 5.62ms. The design’s modularity allows for rapid and scalable adaptations for other PUF implementations or for alternative key requirements. The presented PUFKY core is immediately deployable in an embedded system, e.g. by connecting it to an embedded microcontroller through a convenient bus interface.