GADGET: a code for collisionless and gasdynamical cosmological simulations. We describe the newly written code GADGET which is suitable both for cosmological simulations of structure formation and for the simulation of interacting galaxies. GADGET evolves self-gravitating collisionless fluids with the traditional N-body approach, and a collisional gas by smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Along with the serial version of the code, we discuss a parallel version that has been designed to run on massively parallel supercomputers with distributed memory. While both versions use a tree algorithm to compute gravitational forces, the serial version of GADGET can optionally employ the special-purpose hardware GRAPE instead of the tree. Periodic boundary conditions are supported by means of an Ewald summation technique. The code uses individual and adaptive timesteps for all particles, and it combines this with a scheme for dynamic tree updates. Due to its Lagrangian nature, GADGET thus allows a very large dynamic range to be bridged, both in space and time. So far, GADGET has been successfully used to run simulations with up to 7.5×107 particles, including cosmological studies of large-scale structure formation, high-resolution simulations of the formation of clusters of galaxies, as well as workstation-sized problems of interacting galaxies. In this study, we detail the numerical algorithms employed, and show various tests of the code. We publicly release both the serial and the massively parallel version of the code.

References in zbMATH (referenced in 18 articles )

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  1. Barreira, Alexandre: Structure formation in modified gravity cosmologies (2016)
  2. Gonnet, Pedro: Efficient and scalable algorithms for smoothed particle hydrodynamics on hybrid shared/distributed-memory architectures (2015)
  3. Didelot, Sylvain; Carribault, Patrick; Pérache, Marc; Jalby, William: Improving MPI communication overlap with collaborative polling (2014)
  4. Amritkar, Amit; Tafti, Danesh; Liu, Rui; Kufrin, Rick; Chapman, Barbara: OpenMP parallelism for fluid and fluid-particulate systems (2012)
  5. Bédorf, Jeroen; Gaburov, Evghenii; Zwart, Simon Portegies: A sparse octree gravitational $N$-body code that runs entirely on the GPU processor (2012)
  6. Price, Daniel J.: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (2012)
  7. Di G.Sigalotti, Leonardo; López, Hender; Trujillo, Leonardo: An adaptive SPH method for strong shocks (2009)
  8. Reynolds, Daniel R.; Hayes, John C.; Paschos, Pascal; Norman, Michael L.: Self-consistent solution of cosmological radiation-hydrodynamics and chemical ionization (2009)
  9. Spurzem, R.; Berczik, P.; Marcus, G.; Kugel, A.; Lienhart, G.; Berentzen, I.; Männer, R.; Klessen, R.; Banerjee, R.: Accelerating astrophysical particle simulations with programmable hardware (FPGA and GPU) (2009)
  10. Vanaverbeke, S.; Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.; Boffin, H.: GRADSPH: A parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics code for self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamics (2009)
  11. Jubelgas, M.; Springel, V.; Enßlin, T.; Pfrommer, C.: Cosmic ray feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation (2008)
  12. Springel, Volker; White, Simon D.M.; Navarro, Julio; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina; Gao, Liang: The Aquarius project: cold dark matter under a numerical microscope (2008)
  13. Agertz, Oscar; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim; Potter, Doug; Miniati, Francesco; Read, Justin; Mayer, Lucio; Gawryszczak, Artur; Kravtsov, Andrey; Nordlund, Åke; Pearce, Frazer; Quilis, Vicent; Rudd, Douglas; Springel, Volker; Stone, James; Tasker, Elizabeth; Teyssier, Romain; Wadsley, James; Walder, Rolf: Fundamental differences between SPH and grid methods (2007)
  14. Enßlin, T.A.; Pfrommer, C.; Springel, V.; Jubelgas, M.: Cosmic ray physics in calculations of cosmological structure formation (2007)
  15. Omang, M.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.: SPH in spherical and cylindrical coordinates (2006)
  16. Sbalzarini, I.F.; Walther, J.H.; Bergdorf, M.; Hieber, S.E.; Kotsalis, E.M.; Koumoutsakos, P.: PPM -- a highly efficient parallel particle-mesh library for the simulation of continuum systems (2006)
  17. Puchwein, E.; Bartelmann, M.; Dolag, K.; Meneghetti, M.: The impact of gas physics on strong cluster lensing (2005)
  18. Bernardeau, F.; Colombi, S.; Gaztañaga, E.; Scoccimarro, R.: Large-scale structure of the universe and cosmological perturbation theory (2002)