DIAL: a web server for the pairwise alignment of two RNA three-dimensional structures using nucleotide, dihedral angle and base-pairing similarities. DIAL (dihedral alignment) is a web server that provides public access to a new dynamic programming algorithm for pairwise 3D structural alignment of RNA. DIAL achieves quadratic time by performing an alignment that accounts for (i) pseudo-dihedral and/or dihedral angle similarity, (ii) nucleotide sequence similarity and (iii) nucleotide base-pairing similarity. DIAL provides access to three alignment algorithms: global (Needleman–Wunsch), local (Smith–Waterman) and semiglobal (modified to yield motif search). Suboptimal alignments are optionally returned, and also Boltzmann pair probabilities Pr(ai,bj) for aligned positions ai , bj from the optimal alignment. If a non-zero suboptimal alignment score ratio is entered, then the semiglobal alignment algorithm may be used to detect structurally similar occurrences of a user-specified 3D motif. The query motif may be contiguous in the linear chain or fragmented in a number of noncontiguous regions. The DIAL web server provides graphical output which allows the user to view, rotate and enlarge the 3D superposition for the optimal (and suboptimal) alignment of query to target. Although graphical output is available for all three algorithms, the semiglobal motif search may be of most interest in attempts to identify RNA motifs. DIAL is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/DIAL.

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