cds: Constrained Dual Scaling for Detecting Response Styles. This is an implementation of constrained dual scaling for detecting response styles in categorical data, including utility functions. The procedure involves adding additional columns to the data matrix representing the boundaries between the rating categories. The resulting matrix is then doubled and analyzed by dual scaling. One-dimensional solutions are sought which provide optimal scores for the rating categories. These optimal scores are constrained to follow monotone quadratic splines. Clusters are introduced within which the response styles can vary. The type of response style present in a cluster can be diagnosed from the optimal scores for said cluster, and this can be used to construct an imputed version of the data set which adjusts for response styles.

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  1. Schoonees, Pieter C.; van de Velden, Michel; Groenen, Patrick J.F.: Constrained dual scaling for detecting response styles in categorical data (2015)