AQUATOX: Modeling environmental fate and ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. AQUATOX combines aquatic ecosystem, chemical fate, and ecotoxicological constructs to obtain a truly integrative fate and effects model. It is a general, mechanistic ecological risk assessment model intended to be used to evaluate past, present, and future direct and indirect effects from various stressors including nutrients, organic wastes, sediments, toxic organic chemicals, flow, and temperature in aquatic ecosystems. The model has a very flexible structure and provides multiple analytical tools useful for evaluating ecological effects, including uncertainty analysis, nominal range sensitivity analysis, comparison of perturbed and control simulations, and graphing and tabulation of predicted concentrations, rates, and photosynthetic limitations. It can represent a full aquatic food web, including multiple genera and guilds of periphyton, phytoplankton, submersed aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish and associated organic toxicants. It can model up to 20 organic chemicals simultaneously. (It does not model metals.) Modeled processes for organic toxicants include chemodynamics of neutral and ionized organic chemicals, bioaccumulation as a function of sorption and bioenergetics, biotransformation to daughter products, and sublethal and lethal toxicity. It has an extensive library of default biotic, chemical, and toxicological parameters and incorporates the ICE regression equations for estimating toxicity in numerous organisms. The model has been implemented for streams, small rivers, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. It is an integral part of the BASINS system with linkage to the watershed models HSPF and SWAT.

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  1. Marsili-Libelli, Stefano: Environmental systems analysis with MATLAB (2016)