FES99: A Global Tide Finite Element Solution Assimilating Tide Gauge and Altimetric Information. An improved version of the global hydrodynamic tide solutions [finite element solutions (FESs) FES94, FES95.2.1, and FES98] has been developed, implemented, and validated. The new model is based on the resolution of the tidal barotropic equations on a global finite element grid without any open boundary condition, which leads to solutions independent of in situ data (no open boundary conditions and no assimilation). The accuracy of these “free” solutions is improved by assimilating tide gauge and TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter information through a representer assimilation method. This leads to the FES99 version of this model. For the eight main constituents of the tidal spectrum (M2, S2, N2, K2, 2N2, K1, O1, and Q1), about 700 tide gauges and 687 T/P altimetric measurements are assimilated. An original algorithm is developed to calculate the tidal harmonic constituents at crossover points of the T/P altimeter database. Additional work is performed for the S2 wave by reconsidering the inverse barometer correction. To complete the spectrum, 19 minor constituents have been added by admittance. The accuracy of FES99 is evaluated against the former FESs. ...

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  1. Cotter, Colin J.; Kirby, Robert C.: Mixed finite elements for global tide models (2016)