Convection-Permitting Regional Weather Modeling with COSMO-EULAG: Compressible and Anelastic Solutions for a Typical Westerly Flow over the Alps. A comparison between anelastic and compressible convection-permitting weather forecasts for the Alpine region is presented. This involves mesoscale simulation of a typical westerly flow accompanied by a passage of frontal systems as well as intense airmass convection and orographic convection. The limited-area model employing a 2.2-km horizontal grid length is driven by time-dependent boundary conditions from a coarse-resolution model. The results obtained with the anelastic and the compressible model versions show good agreement. Validations of the 10-m wind, 2-m temperature, 2-m dewpoint temperature, total cloud cover, and surface precipitation against observations for a seven-member forecast ensemble reveal only minor differences between the two configurations. The sensitivity study demonstrates only a small impact of realistic pressure perturbations (about a reference profile) on the solutions. Overall, anelastic approximation proves remarkably accurate in simulating moist mesoscale dynamics. The study has been conducted using a newly developed hybrid limited-area nonhydrostatic version of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) model. This version facilitates the use of two alternative dynamical cores: compressible (original) and anelastic (new). The new dynamical core, which is based on the Euler–Lagrangian (EULAG) solver, aims at integrating atmospheric flow equations at resolutions higher than O(1) km for steep orography. A coupler has been developed to merge the EULAG dynamical core with the COSMO numerical weather prediction framework

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  1. Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng: Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes (2016)