The TOUGH (”Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat”) suite of software codes are multi-dimensional numerical models for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, non-condensible gas, and heat in porous and fractured media. Developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in the early 1980s primarily for geothermal reservoir engineering, the suite of simulators is now widely used at universities, government organizations, and private industry for applications to nuclear waste disposal, environmental remediation problems, energy production from geothermal, oil and gas reservoirs as well as gas hydrate deposits, geological carbon sequestration, vadose zone hydrology, and other uses that involve coupled thermal, hydrological, geochemical, and mechanical processes in permeable media. The TOUGH suite of simulators is continually updated, with new equation-of-state (EOS) modules being developed, and refined process descriptions implemented into the TOUGH framework (see the overview of the TOUGH development history). Notably, EOS property modules for mixtures of water, NaCl, and CO2 has been developed and is widely used for the analysis of geologic carbon sequestration processes.

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  1. Keilegavlen, Eirik; Berge, Runar; Fumagalli, Alessio; Starnoni, Michele; Stefansson, Ivar; Varela, Jhabriel; Berre, Inga: PorePy: an open-source software for simulation of multiphysics processes in fractured porous media (2021)
  2. Shao, Qi; Matthai, Stephan; Driesner, Thomas; Gross, Lutz: Predicting plume spreading during (\mathrmCO_2) geo-sequestration: benchmarking a new hybrid finite element-finite volume compositional simulator with asynchronous time marching (2021)
  3. Afanasyev, Andrey: Numerical modelling of brittle-ductile transition with the MUFITS simulator (2020)
  4. Beck, M.; Rinaldi, A. P.; Flemisch, B.; Class, H.: Accuracy of fully coupled and sequential approaches for modeling hydro- and geomechanical processes (2020)
  5. Commer, Michael; Finsterle, Stefan; Hoversten, G. Michael: Three-dimensional fracture continuum characterization aided by surface time-domain electromagnetics and hydrogeophysical joint inversion -- proof-of-concept (2020)
  6. Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny: Finite volume modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes with application to brine migration in salt (2020)
  7. Keurfon Luu: toughio: Pre- and post-processing Python library for TOUGH (2020) not zbMATH
  8. Wangen, Magnus; Halvorsen, Gotskalk: A three-dimensional analytical solution for reservoir expansion, surface uplift and caprock stress due to pressurized reservoirs (2020)
  9. Yoon, Hyun C.; Zhou, Peng; Kim, Jihoon: Robust modeling of hysteretic capillary pressure and relative permeability for two phase flow in porous media (2020)
  10. Beaude, Laurence; Brenner, Konstantin; Lopez, Simon; Masson, Roland; Smai, Farid: Non-isothermal compositional liquid gas Darcy flow: formulation, soil-atmosphere boundary condition and application to high-energy geothermal simulations (2019)
  11. Wong, Zhi Yang; Kwok, Felix; Horne, Roland N.; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.: Sequential-implicit Newton method for multiphysics simulation (2019)
  12. Burstedde, Carsten; Fonseca, Jose A.; Kollet, Stefan: Enhancing speed and scalability of the ParFlow simulation code (2018)
  13. Kelly, Helena L.; Mathias, Simon A.: Capillary processes increase salt precipitation during CO(_2) injection in saline formations (2018)
  14. Morzfeld, Matthias; Day, Marcus S.; Grout, Ray W.; Heng Pau, George Shu; Finsterle, Stefan A.; Bell, John B.: Iterative importance sampling algorithms for parameter estimation (2018)
  15. Wong, Zhi Yang; Horne, Roland N.; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.: Sequential implicit nonlinear solver for geothermal simulation (2018)
  16. Afanas’ev, A. A.; Mel’nik, O. E.: Numerical simulation of formation of a concentrated brine lens subject to magma chamber degassing (2017)
  17. Chang, J.; Karra, S.; Nakshatrala, K. B.: Large-scale optimization-based non-negative computational framework for diffusion equations: parallel implementation and performance studies (2017)
  18. E. Keilegavlen, A. Fumagalli, R. Berge, I. Stefansson, I. Berre: PorePy: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Flow and Transport in Deformable Fractured Rocks (2017) arXiv
  19. Grigoriev, Fedor Vladimirovich; Kapyrin, Ivan Viktorovich; Vassilevskiĭ, Yuriĭ Viktorovich: Modeling of thermal convection in porous media with volumetric heat source using the GeRa code (2017)
  20. Tsilifis, Panagiotis; Ghanem, Roger G.; Hajali, Paris: Efficient Bayesian experimentation using an expected information gain lower bound (2017)

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