EVENODD: An efficient scheme for tolerating double disk failures in RAID architectures. We present a novel method, that we call EVENODD, for tolerating up to two disk failures in RAID architectures. EVENODD employs the addition of only two redundant disks and consists of simple exclusive-OR computations. This redundant storage is optimal, in the sense that two failed disks cannot be retrieved with less than two redundant disks. A major advantage of EVENODD is that it only requires parity hardware, which is typically present in standard RAID-5 controllers. Hence, EVENODD can be implemented on standard RAID-5 controllers without any hardware changes. The most commonly used scheme that employes optimal redundant storage (i.e., two extra disks) is based on Reed–Solomon (RS) error-correcting codes. This scheme requires computation over finite fields and results in a more complex implementation. For example, we show that the complexity of implementing EVENODD in a disk array with 15 disks is about 50% of the one required when using the RS scheme. The new scheme is not limited to RAID architectures: it can be used in any system requiring large symbols and relatively short codes, for instance, in multitrack magnetic recording. To this end, we also present a decoding algorithm for one column (track) in error.

References in zbMATH (referenced in 21 articles , 1 standard article )

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  1. Tebbi, Ali; Chan, Terence; Sung, Chi Wan: Linear programming bounds for distributed storage codes (2020)
  2. Gong, Xueqing; Sung, Chi Wan: Zigzag decodable codes: linear-time erasure codes with applications to data storage (2017)
  3. Cardell, Sara D.; Climent, Joan-Josep: Recovering erasures by using MDS codes over extension alphabets (2016)
  4. Paterson, Maura B.; Stinson, Douglas R.; Wang, Yongge: On encoding symbol degrees of array BP-XOR codes (2016)
  5. Schwabe, Eric J.: Optimizing large data transfers in parity-declustered data layouts (2015)
  6. Schindelhauer, Christian; Ortolf, Christian: Maximum distance separable codes based on circulant Cauchy matrices (2013)
  7. Yin, Chao; Xie, Changsheng; Wan, Jiguang; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Jinjiang; Lan, Yihua: BMCloud: minimizing repair bandwidth and maintenance cost in cloud storage (2013) ioport
  8. Thomasian, Alexander; Xu, Jun: X-code double parity array operation with two disk failures (2011)
  9. Calderón, A.; García-Carballeira, F.; Sánchez, L. M.; García, J. D.; Fernandez, J.: Fault tolerant file models for parallel file systems: Introducing distribution patterns for every file (2009) ioport
  10. Na, Baoyu; Zhang, Yusen; Liu, Peng; Shao, Hailin: On data reliability algorithms in storage systems (2007)
  11. Srinivasan, Kaushik; Colbourn, Charles J.: Failed disk recovery in double erasure RAID arrays (2007)
  12. Nanda, Sanjeeb; Deo, Narsingh: Methods for placing data and parity to tolerate two disk failures in disk arrays using complete bipartite graphs (2006)
  13. Zhu, Yifeng; Jiang, Hong: CEFT: a cost-effective, fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system (2006)
  14. Nanda, Sanjeeb; Deo, Narsingh: An algorithm for a two-disk fault-tolerant array with (prime-1) disks (2004)
  15. -: Bibliography of “Algorithms for memory hierarchies. Advanced lectures” (2003)
  16. Fang, Liang; Lu, XiCheng: A cost effective fault-tolerant scheme for RAIDs (2003)
  17. Park, Chong-Won; Han, Young-Yearl: A practical parity scheme for tolerating triple disk failures in RAID architectures (2000)
  18. Schwabe, E. J.; Sutherland, I. M.: Flexible usage of redundancy in disk arrays (1999)
  19. Xu, Lihao; Bohossian, Vasken; Bruck, Jehoshua; Wagner, David G.: Low-density MDS codes and factors of complete graphs (1999)
  20. Xu, Lihao; Bruck, Jehoshua: X-code: MDS array codes with optimal encoding (1999)

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