iEnhancer-EL: identifying enhancers and their strength with ensemble learning approach. Motivation: Identification of enhancers and their strength is important because they play a critical role in controlling gene expression. Although some bioinformatics tools were developed, they are limited in discriminating enhancers from non-enhancers only. Recently, a two-layer predictor called ’iEnhancer-2L’ was developed that can be used to predict the enhancer’s strength as well. However, its prediction quality needs further improvement to enhance the practical application value. Results: A new predictor called ’iEnhancer-EL’ was proposed that contains two layer predictors: the first one (for identifying enhancers) is formed by fusing an array of six key individual classifiers, and the second one (for their strength) formed by fusing an array of ten key individual classifiers. All these key classifiers were selected from 171 elementary classifiers formed by SVM (Support Vector Machine) based on kmer, subsequence profile and PseKNC (Pseudo K-tuple Nucleotide Composition), respectively. Rigorous cross-validations have indicated that the proposed predictor is remarkably superior to the existing state-of-the-art one in this area. Availability and implementation: A web server for the iEnhancer-EL has been established at, by which users can easily get their desired results without the need to go through the mathematical details.

References in zbMATH (referenced in 11 articles )

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  1. Butt, Ahmad Hassan; Rasool, Nouman; Khan, Yaser Daanial: Prediction of antioxidant proteins by incorporating statistical moments based features into Chou’s PseAAC (2019)
  2. Jia, Jianhua; Li, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Wangren; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen: iPPI-PseAAC(CGR): identify protein-protein interactions by incorporating chaos game representation into PseAAC (2019)
  3. Lu, Fuhua; Zhu, Maoshu; Lin, Ying; Zhong, Hongbin; Cai, Lei; He, Lin; Chou, Kuo-Chen: The preliminary efficacy evaluation of the CTLA-4-ig treatment against lupus nephritis through \textitin-silico analyses (2019)
  4. Pan, Yi; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Qianzi; Su, Dongqing; Zuo, Yongchun; Yang, Lei: Analysis and prediction of animal toxins by various Chou’s pseudo components and reduced amino acid compositions (2019)
  5. Tahir, Muhammad; Tayara, Hilal; Chong, Kil To: iRNA-PseKNC(2methyl): identify RNA 2’-O-methylation sites by convolution neural network and Chou’s pseudo components (2019)
  6. Tian, Baoguang; Wu, Xue; Chen, Cheng; Qiu, Wenying; Ma, Qin; Yu, Bin: Predicting protein-protein interactions by fusing various Chou’s pseudo components and using wavelet denoising approach (2019)
  7. Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Ruijun; Mu, Yashuang: Fu-SulfPred: identification of protein S-sulfenylation sites by fusing forests via Chou’s general PseAAC (2019)
  8. Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen: pLoc_bal-mGneg: predict subcellular localization of Gram-negative bacterial proteins by quasi-balancing training dataset and general PseAAC (2018)
  9. Ju, Zhe; Wang, Shi-Yun: Prediction of S-sulfenylation sites using mRMR feature selection and fuzzy support vector machine algorithm (2018)
  10. Mei, Juan; Fu, Yi; Zhao, Ji: Analysis and prediction of ion channel inhibitors by using feature selection and Chou’s general pseudo amino acid composition (2018)
  11. Zhang, Shengli; Liang, Yunyun: Predicting apoptosis protein subcellular localization by integrating auto-cross correlation and PSSM into Chou’s PseAAC (2018)