BEFE++

Simulation of linear inclusions with the BEM. A novel numerical approach is presented for the simulation of solids containing thin linear inclusions with the boundary element method (BEM). Assumptions are that the inclusions are in continuous contact with the surrounding solid and that they are only able to carry axial stresses, their bending stiffness is neglected. A practical application is the simulation of underground openings such as tunnels supported by rock bolts. To avoid an increase in the number of unknowns in the system of equations, the problem is solved iteratively. The iterative solution procedure is particularly suitable for solving problems containing a high number of inclusions and involving nonlinear material behaviour, where an iterative solution procedure has to be used anyway. The approach has been implemented into the boundary element program BEFE(++). To verify the method a test example is presented, considering elastic and plastic material behaviour. The results are compared with those calculated by finite elements.