SOMBRERO

SOMBRERO: A PC-tool to calculate shadows on arbitrarily oriented surfaces. Shaded areas of windows, solar thermal collectors or photovoltaic modules are of major importance for the calculation of solar heating- and cooling-loads of buildings as well as for the determination of thermal or electrical output of corresponding solar equipment. SOMBRERO, a PC-program written in Turbo-Pascal, calculates the GSC (geometrical shading coefficient), the proportion of shaded area of an arbitrarily oriented surface surrounded by shading elements as a function of time and location. Shading elements are treated as polygons (not necessarily rectangles) located in a plane and can be combined to bodies such as buildings or trees. They may also represent overhangs and side-wings of the building under consideration. Elements which are far away from the receiver area are treated as horizontal shading profiles. The reduction of (isotropic) diffuse radiation caused by different kinds of obstacles is calculated by means of view-factors. Calculated results of the GSC are stored in ASCII-format and can be used as an input for dynamic solar system simulation programs. This is demonstrated in two illustrative examples showing the coupling of SOMBRERO with SUNCODE and TRNSYS in order to calculate the effects of shading on passive solar heating and passive cooling, respectively.