smacof: SMACOF for Multidimensional Scaling , This package provides the following approaches of multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on stress minimization by means of majorization (smacof): Simple smacof on symmetric dissimilarity matrices, smacof for rectangular matrices (unfolding models), smacof with constraints on the configuration, three-way smacof for individual differences (including constraints for idioscal, indscal, and identity), and spherical smacof (primal and dual algorithm). Each of these approaches is implemented in a metric and nonmetric manner including primary, secondary, and tertiary approaches for tie handling. Jackknife and permutation tests are included as well.