Introduction to the “geosphere” package. This vignette describes the R package ’geosphere’. The package implements spherical trigonometry functions for geographic applications. Many of the functions have applications in navigation, but others are more general, or have no relation to naviation at all. There are a number of functions to compute distance and direction (= bearing, azimuth, course) along great circles (= shortest distance on a sphere, or ”as the crow flies”) and along rhumb lines (lines of constant bearing). Other functions include the computation of the location of an object at a given direction and distance; and the area, perimeter, and centroid of a spherical polygon...

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  1. Bivand, Roger S.; Pebesma, Edzer J.; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio: Applied spatial data analysis with R (2013)