Analysis of variance was pioneered by R. A. Fisher (1925). For a general introduction to analysis of variance, see an intermediate statistical methods textbook such as Steel and Torrie (1980), Snedecor and Cochran (1980), Milliken and Johnson (1984), Mendenhall (1968), John (1971), Ott (1977), or Kirk (1968). A classic source is Scheffé (1959). Freund, Littell, and Spector (1991) bring together a treatment of these statistical methods and SAS/STAT software procedures. Schlotzhauer and Littell (1997) cover how to perform *t* tests and one-way analysis of variance with SAS/STAT procedures. Texts on linear models include Searle (1971), Graybill (1976), and Hocking (1984). Kennedy and Gentle (1980) survey the computing aspects. Other references include the following:

Conover, W. J. and Iman, R. L. (1981), "Rank Transformations as a Bridge between Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics,"

*The American Statistician*, 35, 124–129.Fisher, R. A. (1925),

*Statistical Methods for Research Workers*, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Freund, R. J., Littell, R. C., and Spector, P. C. (1991),

*SAS System for Linear Models*, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Graybill, F. A. (1976),

*Theory and Applications of the Linear Model*, North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.Hocking, R. R. (1984),

*Analysis of Linear Models*, Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.John, P. (1971),

*Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments*, New York: Macmillan.Kennedy, W. J., Jr. and Gentle, J. E. (1980),

*Statistical Computing*, New York: Marcel Dekker.Kirk, R. E. (1968),

*Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences*, Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.Mendenhall, W. (1968),

*Introduction to Linear Models and the Design and Analysis of Experiments*, Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press.Milliken, G. A. and Johnson, D. E. (1984),

*Analysis of Messy Data Volume I: Designed Experiments*, Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications.Ott, L. (1977),

*Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis*, Second Edition, Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press.Scheffé, H. (1959),

*The Analysis of Variance*, New York: John Wiley & Sons.Schlotzhauer, S. D. and Littell, R. C. (1997),

*SAS System for Elementary Statistical Analysis*, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Searle, S. R. (1971),

*Linear Models*, New York: John Wiley & Sons.Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1980),

*Statistical Methods*, Seventh Edition, Ames: Iowa State University Press.Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. (1980),

*Principles and Procedures of Statistics*, Second Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.