magma: a three-dimensional, Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamics code for merger applications. We present a new, completely Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that is based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The equations of self-gravitating hydrodynamics are derived self-consistently from a Lagrangian and account for variable smoothing length (‘grad-h’) terms in both the hydrodynamic and the gravitational acceleration equations. The evolution of the magnetic field is formulated in terms of so-called Euler potentials which are advected with the fluid and thus guarantee the MHD flux-freezing condition. This formulation is equivalent to a vector potential approach and therefore fulfils the ∇·B= 0 constraint by construction. Extensive tests in one, two and three dimensions are presented. The tests demonstrate the excellent conservation properties of the code and show the clear superiority of the Euler potentials over earlier magnetic SPH formulations.

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