BOUT++: A framework for parallel plasma fluid simulations. A new modular code called BOUT++ is presented, which simulates 3D fluid equations in curvilinear coordinates. Although aimed at simulating Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in tokamak x-point geometry, the code is able to simulate a wide range of fluid models (magnetised and unmagnetised) involving an arbitrary number of scalar and vector fields, in a wide range of geometries. Time evolution is fully implicit, and 3rd-order WENO schemes are implemented. Benchmarks are presented for linear and non-linear problems (the Orszag–Tang vortex) showing good agreement. Performance of the code is tested by scaling with problem size and processor number, showing efficient scaling to thousands of processors. Linear initial-value simulations of ELMs using reduced ideal MHD are presented, and the results compared to the ELITE linear MHD eigenvalue code. The resulting mode-structures and growth-rate are found to be in good agreement (γBOUT++=0.245ωAγBOUT++=0.245ωA, γELITE=0.239ωAγELITE=0.239ωA, with Alfvénic timescale 1/ωA=R/VA1/ωA=R/VA). To our knowledge, this is the first time dissipationless, initial-value simulations of ELMs have been successfully demonstrated.

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  1. Wang, Liang; Hakim, Ammar H.; Ng, Jonathan; Dong, Chuanfei; Germaschewski, Kai: Exact and locally implicit source term solvers for multifluid-Maxwell systems (2020)
  2. Yang, Chang; Deluzet, Fabrice; Narski, Jacek: On the numerical resolution of anisotropic equations with high order differential operators arising in plasma physics (2019)
  3. Degond, Pierre; Deluzet, Fabrice: Asymptotic-preserving methods and multiscale models for plasma physics (2017)
  4. Hill, Peter; Shanahan, Brendan; Dudson, Ben: Dirichlet boundary conditions for arbitrary-shaped boundaries in stellarator-like magnetic fields for the flux-coordinate independent method (2017)
  5. Halpern, F. D.; Ricci, P.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Morales, J.; Mosetto, A.; Musil, F.; Riva, F.; Tran, T. M.; Wersal, C.: The GBS code for tokamak scrape-off layer simulations (2016)
  6. Haverkort, J. W.; de Blank, H. J.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Pratt, J.; Koren, B.: Implementation of the full viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamic equations in a nonlinear finite element code (2016)
  7. Minjeaud, Sebastian; Pasquetti, Richard: Fourier-spectral element approximation of the ion-electron Braginskii system with application to tokamak edge plasma in divertor configuration (2016)
  8. Stegmeir, Andreas; Coster, David; Maj, Omar; Hallatschek, Klaus; Lackner, Karl: The field line map approach for simulations of magnetically confined plasmas (2016)
  9. Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Schwander, F.; Serre, E.: The TOKAM3X code for edge turbulence fluid simulations of tokamak plasmas in versatile magnetic geometries (2016)
  10. Turkoz, Emre; Celik, Murat: AETHER: A simulation platform for inductively coupled plasma (2015)
  11. Michoski, C.; Meyerson, D.; Isaac, T.; Waelbroeck, F.: Discontinuous Galerkin methods for plasma physics in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks (2014)
  12. Jardin, S. C.: Review of implicit methods for the magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetically confined plasmas (2012)