Track structures, DNA targets and radiation effects in the biophysical Monte Carlo simulation code PARTRAC. This review describes the PARTRAC suite of comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation tools for calculations of track structures of a variety of ionizing radiation qualities and their biological effects. A multi-scale target model characterizes essential structures of the whole genomic DNA within human fibroblasts and lymphocytes in atomic resolution. Calculation methods and essential results are recapitulated regarding the physical, physico-chemical and chemical stage of track structure development of radiation damage induction. Recent model extension towards DNA repair processes extends the time dimension by about 12 orders of magnitude and paves the way for superior predictions of radiation risks.