NeMa

NeMa: fast graph search with label similarity. It is increasingly common to find real-life data represented as networks of labeled, heterogeneous entities. To query these networks, one often needs to identify the matches of a given query graph in a (typically large) network modeled as a target graph. Due to noise and the lack of fixed schema in the target graph, the query graph can substantially differ from its matches in the target graph in both structure and node labels, thus bringing challenges to the graph querying tasks. In this paper, we propose NeMa (Network Match), a neighborhood-based subgraph matching technique for querying real-life networks. (1) To measure the quality of the match, we propose a novel subgraph matching cost metric that aggregates the costs of matching individual nodes, and unifies both structure and node label similarities. (2) Based on the metric, we formulate the minimum cost subgraph matching problem. Given a query graph and a target graph, the problem is to identify the (top-k) matches of the query graph with minimum costs in the target graph. We show that the problem is NP-hard, and also hard to approximate. (3) We propose a heuristic algorithm for solving the problem based on an inference model. In addition, we propose optimization techniques to improve the efficiency of our method. (4) We empirically verify that NeMa is both effective and efficient compared to the keyword search and various state-of-the-art graph querying techniques.