A very compact FPGA implementation of LED and PHOTON. LED and PHOTON are new ultra-lightweight cryptographic algorithms aiming at resource-constrained devices. In this article, we describe three different hardware architectures of the LED and PHOTON family optimized for Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. In the first architecture, we propose a round-based implementation while the second is a fully serialized architecture performing operations on a single cell per clock cycle. Then, we propose a novel architecture that is designed with a focus on utilizing commonly available building blocks (SRL16). This new architecture, organized in a complex scheduling of the operations, seems very well suited for recent designs that use serial matrices. We implemented both the lightweight block cipher LED and the lightweight hash function PHOTON on the Xilinx FPGA series Spartan-3 (low-cost) and Artix-7 (high-end) devices and our new proposed architecture provides very competitive area-throughput trade-offs. In comparison with other recent lightweight block ciphers, the implementation results of LED show a significant improvement of hardware efficiency and we obtain the smallest known FPGA implementation (as of today) of any hash function.

References in zbMATH (referenced in 53 articles )

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  1. Chen, Shiyao; Fan, Yanhong; Sun, Ling; Fu, Yong; Zhou, Haibo; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Meiqin; Wang, Weijia; Guo, Chun: SAND: an AND-RX Feistel lightweight block cipher supporting S-box-based security evaluations (2022)
  2. Banik, Subhadeep; Bao, Zhenzhen; Isobe, Takanori; Kubo, Hiroyasu; Liu, Fukang; Minematsu, Kazuhiko; Sakamoto, Kosei; Shibata, Nao; Shigeri, Maki: WARP: revisiting GFN for lightweight 128-bit block cipher (2021)
  3. Cui, Ting; Chen, Shiwei; Jin, Chenhui; Zheng, Haoran: Construction of higher-level MDS matrices in nested SPNs (2021)
  4. Kim, Hangi; Jeon, Yongjin; Kim, Giyoon; Kim, Jongsung; Sim, Bo-Yeon; Han, Dong-Guk; Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Seonggyeom; Hong, Seokhie; Sung, Jaechul; Hong, Deukjo: \textsfPIPO: a lightweight block cipher with efficient higher-order masking software implementations (2021)
  5. Bar-On, Achiya; Dunkelman, Orr; Keller, Nathan; Ronen, Eyal; Shamir, Adi: Improved key recovery attacks on reduced-round AES with practical data and memory complexities (2020)
  6. Chakraborti, Avik; Iwata, Tetsu; Minematsu, Kazuhiko; Nandi, Mridul: Blockcipher-based authenticated encryption: how small can we go? (2020)
  7. Mirzaee Shamsabad, M. R.; Dehnavi, S. M.: Provable one-XOR matrices for construction of (4 \times4) hardware-oriented MDS diffusion layers (2020)
  8. Zhao, Boxin; Dong, Xiaoyang; Meier, Willi; Jia, Keting; Wang, Gaoli: Generalized related-key rectangle attacks on block ciphers with linear key schedule: applications to SKINNY and GIFT (2020)
  9. Cauchois, Victor; Loidreau, Pierre: On circulant involutory MDS matrices (2019)
  10. Dey, Sabyasachi; Roy, Tapabrata; Sarkar, Santanu: Some results on Fruit (2019)
  11. Gupta, Kishan Chand; Pandey, Sumit Kumar; Venkateswarlu, Ayineedi: Almost involutory recursive MDS diffusion layers (2019)
  12. Jangra, Monika; Singh, Buddha: Performance analysis of CLEFIA and PRESENT lightweight block ciphers (2019)
  13. Boura, Christina; Lallemand, Virginie; Naya-Plasencia, MarĂ­a; Suder, Valentin: Making the impossible possible (2018)
  14. Chen, Shan; Lampe, Rodolphe; Lee, Jooyoung; Seurin, Yannick; Steinberger, John: Minimizing the two-round Even-Mansour cipher (2018)
  15. Elenizi, Eman; Bani-Ata, Mashhour; Alrashed, Maryam H. A.: On a new cipher system over Galois fields of order 27 (2018)
  16. Liu, Yunwen; Rijmen, Vincent: New observations on invariant subspace attack (2018)
  17. Liu, Yunwen; Rijmen, Vincent; Leander, Gregor: Nonlinear diffusion layers (2018)
  18. Anashkin, A. V.: Complete description of a class of MDS-matrices over finite field of characteristic 2 (2017)
  19. Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars R.; Leander, Gregor: Reflection ciphers (2017)
  20. Dubrova, Elena; Hell, Martin: Espresso: a stream cipher for 5G wireless communication systems (2017)

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