Nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) for global cloud resolving simulations. A new type of ultra-high resolution atmospheric global circulation model is developed. The new model is designed to perform “cloud resolving simulations” by directly calculating deep convection and meso-scale circulations, which play key roles not only in the tropical circulations but in the global circulations of the atmosphere. Since cores of deep convection have a few km in horizontal size, they have not directly been resolved by existing atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). In order to drastically enhance horizontal resolution, a new framework of a global atmospheric model is required; we adopted nonhydrostatic governing equations and icosahedral grids to the new model, and call it Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). In this article, we review governing equations and numerical techniques employed, and present the results from the unique 3.5-km mesh global experiments—with O(109) computational nodes—using realistic topography and land/ocean surface thermal forcing. The results show realistic behaviors of multi-scale convective systems in the tropics, which have not been captured by AGCMs. We also argue future perspective of the roles of the new model in the next generation atmospheric sciences.

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  1. Otkin, Jason A.; Potthast, Roland W. E.; Lawless, Amos S.: Nonlinear conditional model bias estimation for data assimilation (2021)
  2. Ullrich, Paul A.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Guerra, Jorge E.; Taylor, Mark A.: Impact and importance of hyperdiffusion on the spectral element method: a linear dispersion analysis (2018)
  3. Melvin, Thomas; Thuburn, John: Wave dispersion properties of compound finite elements (2017)
  4. Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Kühnlein, Christian; Grabowski, Wojciech W.: A finite-volume module for cloud-resolving simulations of global atmospheric flows (2017)
  5. Marras, Simone; Kelly, James F.; Moragues, Margarida; Müller, Andreas; Kopera, Michal A.; Vázquez, Mariano; Giraldo, Francis X.; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Jorba, Oriol: A review of element-based Galerkin methods for numerical weather prediction: finite elements, spectral elements, and discontinuous Galerkin (2016)
  6. Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Deconinck, Willem; Hamrud, Mats; Kühnlein, Christian; Mozdzynski, George; Szmelter, Joanna; Wedi, Nils P.: A finite-volume module for simulating global all-scale atmospheric flows (2016)
  7. Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng: Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes (2016)
  8. Iga, Shin-ichi: Smooth, seamless, and structured grid generation with flexibility in resolution distribution on a sphere based on conformal mapping and the spring dynamics method (2015)
  9. Zerroukat, M.; Allen, T.: A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models (2015)
  10. Iga, Shin-ichi; Tomita, Hirofumi: Improved smoothness and homogeneity of icosahedral grids using the spring dynamics method (2014)
  11. Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Kühnlein, Christian; Wedi, Nils P.: A consistent framework for discrete integrations of soundproof and compressible PDEs of atmospheric dynamics (2014)
  12. Marras, Simone; Moragues, Margarida; Vázquez, Mariano; Jorba, Oriol; Houzeaux, Guillaume: Simulations of moist convection by a variational multiscale stabilized finite element method (2013)
  13. Marras, Simone; Moragues, Margarida; Vázquez, Mariano; Jorba, Oriol; Houzeaux, Guillaume: A variational multiscale stabilized finite element method for the solution of the Euler equations of nonhydrostatic stratified flows (2013)
  14. Peixoto, Pedro S.; Barros, Saulo R. M.: Analysis of grid imprinting on geodesic spherical icosahedral grids (2013)
  15. Cotter, C. J.; Shipton, J.: Mixed finite elements for numerical weather prediction (2012)
  16. Ullrich, Paul A.; Jablonowski, Christiane: MCore: a non-hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core utilizing high-order finite-volume methods (2012)
  17. Cotter, C. J.; Ham, D. A.: Numerical wave propagation for the triangular (P1_DG-P2) finite element pair (2011)
  18. Ii, Satoshi; Xiao, Feng: A global shallow water model using high order multi-moment constrained finite volume method and icosahedral grid (2010)
  19. Szmelter, Joanna; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.: An edge-based unstructured mesh discretisation in geospherical framework (2010)
  20. Piotrowski, Zbigniew P.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Malinowski, Szymon P.; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej A.: On numerical realizability of thermal convection (2009)

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