In the mid-1970’s, the FASTRAN-II life-prediction code was developed by Dr. James C. Newman, Jr. to predict crack growth under variable-amplitude loading, such as aircraft spectra, and has always had ”rainflow-on-the-fly methodology” to predict crack growth. Thus, variable-amplitude load histories did not have to be reordered to capture the damaging effects of major and minor load excursions during a general cyclic-load history. Over the years since leaving NASA, Jim has created a series of enhanced versions of the code as President of Fatigue & Fracture Associates (FFA), and made the code available to its customers, including universities, major aerospace companies, and government agencies internationally.