HCP: A Flexible CNN Framework for Multi-Label Image Classification. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated promising performance in single-label image classification tasks. However, how CNN best copes with multi-label images still remains an open problem, mainly due to the complex underlying object layouts and insufficient multi-label training images. In this work, we propose a flexible deep CNN infrastructure, called Hypotheses-CNN-Pooling (HCP), where an arbitrary number of object segment hypotheses are taken as the inputs, then a shared CNN is connected with each hypothesis, and finally the CNN output results from different hypotheses are aggregated with max pooling to produce the ultimate multi-label predictions. Some unique characteristics of this flexible deep CNN infrastructure include: 1) no ground-truth bounding box information is required for training; 2) the whole HCP infrastructure is robust to possibly noisy and/or redundant hypotheses; 3) the shared CNN is flexible and can be well pre-trained with a large-scale single-label image dataset, e.g., ImageNet; and 4) it may naturally output multi-label prediction results. Experimental results on Pascal VOC 2007 and VOC 2012 multi-label image datasets well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HCP infrastructure over other state-of-the-arts. In particular, the mAP reaches 90.5% by HCP only and 93.2% after the fusion with our complementary result in  based on hand-crafted features on the VOC 2012 dataset.
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- Do, Kien; Tran, Truyen; Nguyen, Thin; Venkatesh, Svetha: Attentional multilabel learning over graphs: a message passing approach (2019)
- Waegeman, Willem; Dembczyński, Krzysztof; Hüllermeier, Eyke: Multi-target prediction: a unifying view on problems and methods (2019)