AIRES

AIRES: A system for air shower simulations (Version 2.2.0). The name AIRES (AIR-shower Extended Simulations) identifies a set of programs and subroutines to simulate particle showers produced after the incidence of high energy cosmic rays on the Earth’s atmosphere, and to manage all the related output data. The physical algorithms currently used in AIRES main simulation programs are based on the corresponding procedures of the widely known MOCCA program originally developed by A. M. Hillas for the Haverah Park Cosmic Ray experiment. The particles taken into account in the simulations are: Gammas, electrons, positrons, muons, pions, kaons, eta mesons, nucleons and antinucleons, and nuclei up to Z=26. Electron and muon neutrinos are generated in certain processes (decays) and accounted for their energy, but not propagated. The primary particle can be any one of the already mentioned particles, with energy ranging from several GeV up to more than 1 ZeV (1021 eV). An important characteristic of AIRES is that the simulation program is now capable of invoking external, user-written, programs to generate sets of particles to be injected in the stacks before starting the simulation of the corresponding shower. This kind of primary particle processing allows, for example, to process the first interaction of ”exotic” primaries like neutrinos, including all the particles generated by ultra-high energy gamma ray conversion in the geomagnetic field before reaching the atmosphere, etc.

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