FUNNEL-GSEA: FUNctioNal ELastic-net regression in time-course gene set enrichment analysis. Results: We propose an inferential framework for GSEA based on functional data analysis, which utilizes the temporal information based on functional principal component analysis, and disentangles the effects of overlapping genes by a functional extension of the elastic-net regression. Furthermore, the hypothesis testing for the gene sets is performed by an extension of Mann-Whitney U test which is based on weighted rank sums computed from correlated observations. By using both simulated datasets and a large-scale time-course gene expression data on human influenza infection, we demonstrate that our method has uniformly better receiver operating characteristic curves, and identifies more pathways relevant to immune-response to human influenza infection than the competing approaches. Availability and Implementation: The methods are implemented in R package FUNNEL, freely and publicly available at:

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