The Gradual Verifier. Static verification traditionally produces yes/no answers. It either provides a proof that a piece of code meets a property, or a counterexample showing that the property can be violated. Hence, the progress of static verification is hard to measure. Unlike in testing, where coverage metrics can be used to track progress, static verification does not provide any intermediate result until the proof of correctness can be computed. This is in particular problematic because of the inevitable incompleteness of static verifiers. To overcome this, we propose a gradual verification approach, GraVy. For a given piece of Java code, GraVy partitions the statements into those that are unreachable, or from which exceptional termination is impossible, inevitable, or possible. Further analysis can then focus on the latter case. That is, even though some statements still may terminate exceptionally, GraVy still computes a partial result. This allows us to measure the progress of static verification.We present an implementation of GraVy and evaluate it on several open source projects.

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  1. Garzella, Jack J.; Baranowski, Marek; He, Shaobo; Rakamarić, Zvonimir: Leveraging compiler intermediate representation for multi- and cross-language verification (2020)
  2. Arlt, Stephan; Rubio-González, Cindy; Rümmer, Philipp; Schäf, Martin; Shankar, Natarajan: The gradual verifier (2014) ioport