Quark: a lightweight hash. The need for lightweight (that is, compact, low-power, low-energy) cryptographic hash functions has been repeatedly expressed by professionals, notably to implement cryptographic protocols in RFID technology. At the time of writing, however, no algorithm exists that provides satisfactory security and performance. The ongoing SHA-3 Competition will not help, as it concerns general-purpose designs and focuses on software performance. This paper thus proposes a novel design philosophy for lightweight hash functions, based on the sponge construction in order to minimize memory requirements. Inspired by the stream cipher Grain and by the block cipher KATAN (amongst the lightest secure ciphers), we present the hash function family Quark, composed of three instances: u-Quark, d-Quark, and s-Quark. As a sponge construction, Quark can be used for message authentication, stream encryption, or authenticated encryption. Our hardware evaluation shows that Quark compares well to previous tentative lightweight hash functions. For example, our lightest instance u-Quark conjecturally provides at least 64-bit security against all attacks (collisions, multicollisions, distinguishers, etc.), fits in 1379 gate-equivalents, and consumes on average 2.44 μW at 100 kHz in 0.18 μm ASIC. For 112-bit security, we propose s-Quark, which can be implemented with 2296 gate-equivalents with a power consumption of 4.35 μW.

References in zbMATH (referenced in 20 articles , 2 standard articles )

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  1. Wang, Zhongxiao; Zheng, Qunxiong; Zhao, Xiaoxin; Feng, Xiutao: Grain-like structures with minimal and maximal period sequences (2021)
  2. Liu, Junying; Zheng, Qunxiong; Lin, Dongdai: A new upper bound on the order of affine sub-families of NFSRs (2020)
  3. Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jia-Min; Qi, Wen-Feng: On the uniqueness of a type of cascade connection representations for NFSRs (2019)
  4. Czajkowski, Jan; Groot Bruinderink, Leon; Hülsing, Andreas; Schaffner, Christian; Unruh, Dominique: Post-quantum security of the sponge construction (2018)
  5. Cabral, Roberto; López, Julio: Fast software implementation of QUARK on a 32-bit architecture (2016)
  6. Blondeau, Céline; Peyrin, Thomas; Wang, Lei: Known-key distinguisher on full (\mathttPRESENT) (2015)
  7. Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit: A secure effective key management scheme for dynamic access control in a large leaf class hierarchy (2014)
  8. Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Henzen, Luca; Meier, Willi; Naya-Plasencia, María: Quark: a lightweight hash (2013)
  9. Das, Ashok Kumar: A secure and effective user authentication and privacy preserving protocol with smart cards for wireless communications (2013) ioport
  10. Berger, Thierry P.; D’Hayer, Joffrey; Marquet, Kevin; Minier, Marine; Thomas, Gaël: The GLUON family: a lightweight hash function family based on FCSRs (2012)
  11. Bertoni, Guido; Daemen, Joan; Peeters, Michaël; Van Assche, Gilles: Duplexing the sponge: Single-pass authenticated encryption and other applications (2012)
  12. Choy, Jiali; Yap, Huihui; Khoo, Khoongming; Guo, Jian; Peyrin, Thomas; Poschmann, Axel; Tan, Chik How: SPN-hash: improving the provable resistance against differential collision attacks (2012)
  13. Hirose, Shoichi; Kuwakado, Hidenori; Yoshida, Hirotaka: Compression functions using a dedicated blockcipher for lightweight hashing (2012)
  14. Karakoç, Ferhat; Demirci, Hüseyin; Harmancı, A. Emre: Combined differential and linear cryptanalysis of reduced-round \textscPRINTcipher (2012)
  15. Mendel, Florian; Rijmen, Vincent; Toz, Deniz; Varıcı, Kerem: Differential analysis of the LED block cipher (2012)
  16. Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Naya-Plasencia, María; Saarinen, Markku-Juhani O.: Practical attack on 8 rounds of the lightweight block cipher KLEIN (2011)
  17. Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja; Peters, Christiane; Schwabe, Peter: Really fast syndrome-based hashing (2011)
  18. Guo, Jian; Peyrin, Thomas; Poschmann, Axel: The PHOTON family of lightweight hash functions (2011)
  19. Hirose, Shoichi; Ideguchi, Kota; Kuwakado, Hidenori; Owada, Toru; Preneel, Bart; Yoshida, Hirotaka: A lightweight 256-bit hash function for hardware and low-end devices: Lesamnta-LW (2011)
  20. Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Henzen, Luca; Meier, Willi; Naya-Plasencia, María: Quark: a lightweight hash (2010)