Kiva-2

KIVA-2: A computer program for chemically reactive flows with sprays. This report documents the KIVA-2 computer program for the numerical calculation of transient, two- and three-dimensional, chemically reactive fluid flows with sprays. KIVA-2 extends and enhances the earlier KIVA code, improving its computational accuracy and efficiency and its ease-of-use. The KIVA-2 equations and numerical solution procedures are very general and can be applied to laminar or turbulent flows, subsonic or supersonic flows, and single-phase or dispersed two-phase flows. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. A stochastic particle method is used to calculate evaporating liquid sprays, including the effects of droplet collisions and aerodynamic breakups. Although the initial and boundary conditions and mesh generation have been written for internal combustion engine calculations, the logic for these specifications can be easily modified for a variety of other applications. Following an overview of the principal features of the KIVA-2 program, we describe in detail the equations solved, the numerical solution procedure, and the structure of the computer program. Sixteen appendices provide additional details concerning the numerical solution procedure.